As much as I dislike to even voice this theory(because I like Dalinar way more than Adolin), I think he will most likely die in book 2. My theories:
1. The heritage-After returning to Sadeas' warcamp, Dalinar trades his shardblade in exchange for the bridgemen. That weapon was a part of his soul, and I don't see him living in good conscience now that he had been parted from it. Worse, the one who left him for dead owns it. After he talks with Sadeas and beats some sense into Elhokar, he's talking about giving his Shardplate away. This is going to left him exposed, with nothing valuable to pass on once he dies. Except for his visions. But these have already been scribbled down by Navanni, so Dalinar is not unique anymore.
2. His sense of honor- Szeth only wants to kill Dalinar because of his order. I strongly doubt Dalinar is going to summon all of his men for protection, when he knows what Szeth is capable of. He killed his brother, who was rumored to be one of the most skilled Shardbearers in Alethkar. And Dalinar is pretty much naked in front of this threat. That's why he will most honorably order his men to stay away and not die a pointless death.
3. The Visions- Brace yourselves, because that's the part I don't really like, and thoroughly hope it does not happen. Most recently, the voice that tells him to 'Unite them' speaks to him outside of Hightstorms. Dalinar has already suspected what this means, but he's still far from the truth(I think 'unite them' includes the Parshendi, because I don't think they are the bad guys. Maybe they are manipulated by a force, like Ruin from Mistborn). He already spoke to Adolin about this, and he always scoffed at the ridiculous idea. To hinder his progress, I think Brandon will kill Dalinar so that the quest falls to someone who is not going to be dedicated to it, as Dalinar has been.
Last but not least, I really hope Kaladin does not get an important position in the Kholin Warcamp. While I like that guy, I don't want to see a 'from zero to hero' scenario taking place.