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Showing content with the highest reputation since 11/06/2019 in Blog Entries

  1. 4 points
    Finally got around to something I've wanted to do for a long time. Make a globe of Roshar! The site doesn't work very well on mobile, so here's some images: First need to say thanks to u/Stoneward13 on Reddit who created the beautiful high-resolution map that I used for this. The trick was getting the projection right. @Otto Didact identified the map from Oathbringer as an "azimuthal equidistant" projection while the "Map To Globe" site I used required an equirectangular projection. With a bit of patience I finally discovered a way in QGIS to mark coordinates on a raster image and have that program pump out the equirectangular projection! So here you have it. I've positioned it at the appropriate latitude, with the equator passing through the center of Kadrix island. To anybody not aware, yes, Roshar is mostly ocean. Brandon has stated that there are no other major landmasses. It's possible that ice caps exist, (seems like Yalb mentions tales of a southern ice cap?) but I haven't speculated on that. Maybe I'll circle back around to it. The continent is a bit smaller than Asia. More details on that sort of thing here: Under the "Options' menu you can toggle longitude/latitude lines. (if comparing with the Oathbringer map, typical lines won't line up right because Roshar uses 200 "degrees" in a circle) And play with some other tweaks, like lighting. But my favorite feature is the "Measure distance" button. Click that and enter Roshar's radius (about 5663 km) and it report the distance between two points you select.
  2. 3 points
    You are going to love this theory. I guarantee it. I was reading Andrew's article the other day, and that got me thinking about what makes magic work on a fundamental level in the cosmere. This will be somewhat of a rebuttal to you, Andrew, because this direction is far more fruitful. But it's much more than a rebuttal. In my opinion, this is quite a paradigm shift. In any given Shardworld, magic is directly tied to a Shard. Everyone has pieces of Shards inside them. In Mistborn, everyone has fragments of Ruin and Preservation inside them. In Warbreaker, everyone has Breath. It's not unimaginable to think that this generalizes for any Shardworld, so I'm going to assume that always holds. In order to use Allomancy, you need to have "enough" Preservation in you. There's other stuff you need, too, like Snapping, but we'll discuss that later; it's not important anyways. The only real requirement for Allomancy is that you have enough Preservation. The rest is just book-keeping. And likewise, for Awakening, you need Breath, a fragment of Endowment. So here's a question: why is Awakening different from Allomancy? Before you go saying this is a totally obvious question, let me remind you that there are distinct differences between Awakening and Allomancy. Awakeners never need to Snap, though Allomancers do (and the Shaod is sort of similar to Snapping, too, in a way). We want to discover the fundamental rules of how magic operates, right? So the question about the difference between Awakening and Allomancy isn't so dumb. Now that I've made the question sound important, let me completely trivialize it with the easy answer: they are different because the Shards are different. Duh. That's fairly obvious. But in fact, this is precisely the key to understanding all magic. My principle is simple: To interact with the spiritual power of the Shard inside you, it must be in accordance with the Shard's intent. (That is, the name of the Shard. Ruin. Preservation. Endowment. It is what the Shard wants to do. Look at the bottom here for that reference.) I'm going to call it the Principle of Intent, simply because that makes it sound important. Now I simply have to show you how important this principle is. Let's say that Breath is the Nalthis equivalent of those fragments of Ruin and Preservation on Scadrial. These latent powers of a Shard can be accessed and manipulated. With Preservation's magic, I can do lots of cool things, but one thing I can't do is move that fragment of the soul around. But, I could do such a thing if I was using the right magic system. On Nalthis, Endowment endows. It makes perfect sense that Awakening can move pieces of souls around, because that's Endowment's intent. Indeed, I can do similar things with Hemalurgy, because it is inherently destructive. Ruin ruins. Endowment endows. Preservation preserves. "But wait, why does Allomancy cause such rapid changes if it's from Preservation? That seems antithetical to Preservation's intent." There was a thread about this on Adonalsium.net, actually, and I couldn't come up with a proper explanation. Now I can. Watch closely, because this is fancy footwork. Think, for a moment, less about the external effects of Allomancy. Brandon's said that powers don't need to have rational explanations, just that they are bound by rules. Is there any particular reason why iron does the Physical Internal power rather than pewter? No, and that's okay. Instead, let's consider what happens to that piece of Preservation inside you when you utilize Allomancy. Awakening moves spiritual energy, or endows it to something else. This doesn't happen with Preservation. There ought to be some reason why Preservation provides a net gain of energy with Allomancy instead of Awakening's system, and there indeed is. Preservation does preserve, it just preserves the piece of Preservation inside you (and for that matter, every aspect of your body. There is no direct physical cost to Allomancy in the act of burning metals). When you think about it from a Shard level, each Shard has a focus. Ruin and Preservation share a focus in metal. This metal activates some spiritual action, I'd imagine. Lock and key. The metal is the key to all the Metallic Arts. The metal must do something with respect to Preservation, and what's it going to do? With the Principle of Intent, that fragment of Preservation inside you wants to preserve itself, its spiritual energy. It also wants to preserve yourself. So, the only place it receive energy from is some external source, in order to preserve your own energy. Slight side note: Another issue with Allomancy and its net gain is the idea that if Preservation "designed" Allomancy--though that term is a bit misleading, as I suspect no Shard explicitly could design something like that--he's losing energy. That's not true. The Well of Ascension refills every thousand years (technically, 1024 years). Utilizing it doesn't make it go away. Burning atium also regenerates eventually in the Pits of Hathsin. Likewise, there's no reason why this Allomantic energy actually goes away. It regenerates, too. Wait a minute. I just got the most brilliant idea ever as I wrote that. Brandon said that Preservation or Ruin could, in principle, fuel any of the Metallic Arts, but he said that it expends power in ways gods are hesitant to do (I can't find the citation right now, but I think it's in the Hero of Ages spoiler thread). Why would it expend energy? Doesn't it all regenerate? No, I think not. Not exclusively. What if a Shard's power only regenerates when the Shard is doing something according to the Shard's intent? Atium is of Ruin, and so using that energy with respect to Ruining something will make it regenerate. The Well put Rashek into severe Preservation mode, making him extremely reactionary. So in a roundabout way, that again is Preservation. That kind of explains why dispersing the power broke Ruin's prison--it was an act not of Preservation, so the power wasn't conserved. Also, if this was true, it makes a heck of a lot more sense why Endowment Returns people, and why he isn't dead from doing so. The power all comes back eventually. Ahem, that got off track. I'll build that theory in more detail, with better citations, later. Back to the Principle of Intent, with respect to the other Metallic Arts. It's been noted in the annotations that Ruin is selfish. So, fragments of its power wouldn't want to destroy itself, but it is perfectly okay with destroying other things. Hence Hemalurgy doesn't do much to yourself, and instead destroys other things. To use the analogy with Preservation, Preservation preserves spiritual energy, while Ruin destroys spiritual energy. I suspect that the greater amount of Ruin inside you, the more likely to perform Hemalurgy, however. So why does Feruchemy work? Well, it's perfect balance. I can't utilize the power of either Ruin or Preservation here. They are balanced. I can't use either power up now. Were I to use or "access" the Shard's powers, they'd cancel each other out, so to speak. Nothing happens on the spiritual side of things (Okay, that's probably not true. It's just no spiritual energy is changed. I'm sure on some Realmatic level, both Ruin and Preservation act equally) So what happens if not doing something with spiritual energy? I draw from myself. This fits the Principle of Intent just fine. You may be wondering why there'd be such a principle at all. Sazed could do all sorts of things when he held both powers. The difference here is that the body acts as a conduit--and not a very good one--for the power. Only once Vin's body vanished did the power become more expansive. I suspect this effect is due to the Physical, Cognitive, and Spiritual Realms. When a Shard's power is in a physical form, it does one specific thing (lerasium, atium). The Physical Realm seems to have a restricting effect. Thus, for humans, they access the power in their Shards in a more restrictive manner simply by being human. That's why the Principle of Intent appears to hold. Of course, even as a full Shardholder, the same principle applies eventually. The Shardholder's mind would be shaped to the Shard's intent over the centuries. Furthermore, Brandon said that Preservation or Ruin could, in principle fuel any of Metallic Arts, but he said that that expends power in ways gods are hesitant to do. Presumably, this is because while a Shard is a part of the power of creation and can do lots of amazing things, the Shard can more easily do things in line with its intent. Or, if I was right about the conservation thing, it's that a Shard knows the power will come back eventually. A Shardholder's consciousness apparently "feeds" off the spiritual power of the Shard, so if that power is all gone, that person dies. Maybe you're not buying my principle. Don't believe me? Well, no theory is good unless it has some predictive power, so let's do some theorizing on other magics. I'd like to work with Elantris, but I don't know either Aona or Skai's Shard name, so it's going to be challenging to know just what they do. But Stormlight Archive is the perfect testing ground for a theory. We know all the Rosharian Shard's names, and there's a bunch of magic systems that don't exactly make sense. I began pondering what exactly would Honor--the Almighty's Shard--do. Knowing the answer to this would give an intuitive understanding to the mechanism of his magic. But Honor is hard to pin down. Ruin ruins... Honor honors stuff. That's, uh, super helpful. But you know what's really honorable? Oaths. Promises. Bonds. Oathpact. Surgebinder. Peter said on TWG that a Surge is what people on Roshar call a force (I'd assume things like gravity). Surge, plus a bond with a spren? Surgebinders. Congratulations, you are now a magic user. Honor's power comes from oaths and bonds. Perhaps it creates a spiritual bond of sorts. That's what Honor does. There was also the question of what happened to Kaladin at the end of Way of Kings. He spoke the Second Ideal of the Knights Radiant, then he burst with power. Seems to me that this near unequivocal evidence that Honor uses these oaths in a specifc, magical way. Then there's good old Szeth. How is he a Surgebinder if he doesn't have a spren? I'm not totally sure, but perhaps his strong oaths as a Truthless provides the sufficient bond for Honor's magic to work. Maybe there does exist a spren. Either way, those oaths are intricately tied with Szeth's Radiant powers. So, I'm calling it right now: if Szeth breaks his oaths, he will lose his powers. I read a little bit of Way of Kings today, and I had forgotten that Jasnah said that two orders of the Knights Radiant have natural Soulcasting abilities. Now, recall that in the 17th Shard interview with Brandon, he said that there are ten powers (it seems to be ten Surges is the technical term), and you make an order of the Knights Radiant by picking from two of those Surges. I never realized before, but that must mean Soulcasting is a type of Surgebinding. That's kind of a scary implication. We've seen, what, Windrunners and Soulcasters, and there are ten more powers? Plenty more magic systems to go around, clearly. But a more detailed analysis of Stormlight Archive magics is for another day, I think. Other theories for other days. Source: The Principle of Intent
  3. 2 points
    TWG 100%: Brandon 100% (116/116), Peter 100% (116/116), Isaac 100% (75/75), Ben 100% (38/38) 17S 100%: Brandon 100% (105/105), Peter 100% (111/111), Isaac 100% (111/111), Ben 100% (100/100) Reddit 92%: Brandon 100% (134/134), Peter 100% (107/107), Isaac 100% (25/25), Ben 65% (57/88), Adam 100% (16/16), Store 100% (6/6) Twitter 43%: Brandon 100% (127/127), Peter 17% (22/127), Isaac 16% (22/134), Adam 38% (22/58) Blog 100%: Brandon 100% (214/214) Social Media Total: 84% (1518/1802) Theoryland Review: 10% (121/1183) Events and Signings Review: 0% (0/397) I made better promise than it looks like, I promise. I'm current on Ben's Reddit history, finally. But... I realized that the interface I was using changed at some point, and it was automatically truncated results past 100 for each month. I know it wasn't when I was looking at Brandon or Peter, and Isaac and Adam don't have enough activity for it to matter. But Ben's got quite a few months with over 100 comments (or 200, or 300), so I'm going to go back and double-check a bunch of them, see if I missed anything. Once that's done, I'll probably crank along with Twitter. Should be less work than Reddit; everyone seems much less active on there. I think I've got a good site saved somewhere in my bookmarks for Twitter archiving, I'll try to dig that up. I don't think I'll get that done by the end of the calendar year; I've got a couple of non-Arcanum projects I'd like to get through (theories and reading guides and the like) before Stormlight Four comes out, so I don't expect to dive into the Theoryland review or the E&S forum review. They'll get done eventually; we're in no rush, after all. But I do believe I'll have Reddit completely up-to-date by my last progress update of 2019. For the update WoB, I'll share something of Ben's I didn't actually add. He caused a bit of a stir recently, sharing a theory he had about Lift's boon/curse and now the Old Magic and Nahel bonds interfere. It's not actually new; he's talked about it multiple times before. One of the other instances, here's what he said: Well, I forgot to save the link, so I can't actually quote it. Sorry to fake you out. But here's the summary: closer to when OB came out, he presented the same views, explicitly labeling them as a theory. This latest 'incident,' he said it quite authoritatively, but no more so than anyone on this forum will assert their own theories. That's always the balance to strike with putting Peter, Isaac, and Brandon into Arcanum; when are they speaking as an authority, and when are they speaking as a confident fan? It's often a judgment call on my part, to try to figure out exactly where they take off one hat and put another one on. Do I get it right all the time? Of course I do. Give me some credit. If you think I don't... well, I can point you towards some helpful websites, and you can double-check my work! The other good Reddit comment I saw from Ben was him saying he's not on Twitter. Which is good; I don't have to worry about him on that platform. I hadn't been including him in my Twitter stats because I thought I just couldn't find it; but now I know the account doesn't exist at all.
  4. 1 point
    This comes up in conversations occasionally and I've been meaning to write up a concise and simple explanation for a while now. So here we go. But before I say anything else, I feel like I need to emphasize that I don't want to come across like I'm complaining about the books. Stormlight Archive is my absolute favorite series and this is such an obscure detail. Astronomy and orbital mechanics is a low-key passion for me (I blame Kerbal Space Program, mostly), so when I'm reading a book that I love and see information about this topic I can't help but dig into it. Brandon and his team do a LOT of work to make all of his fantastical worldbuilding make sense. They can't knock it out of the park every time. Maybe they'll look into this when doing the Stormlight leatherbounds and find a way to "fix" it. Maybe they won't--Roshar's moons are really imaginative, so why throw that out over some minor issues that 99% of readers will never even stop to consider? I'm just writing this up because I enjoy exploring the "science" of these books. Sometimes it doesn't work out nicely... and that's okay. It's fun to do the math regardless, and I'm just thankful Brandon put enough into the books that I can overthink it this much. The Situation I want this to be accessible for people who know very little about astronomy, so let's start with some quick basics. Below is a simple image of Roshar from "above". We're looking "down" on the North pole here.You can see which way it rotates relative to the Sun. You can see where the sun is setting and where it's rising. Note that the continent is actually in the southern hemisphere (I think it's one of the TWoK maps that shows the equator along the edges in a subtle way). For simplicity, in this post I'm just going to look at points along the equator. Also note that the continent spans about 120 degrees longitude, and Iri/Shinovar are about 90 degrees longitude behind the Shattered Plains. In other words, sunset on the Shattered plains is noon in Shinovar. Midnight in Shinovar is dawn on the Shattered Plains. We know that Roshar's moons orbit the planet once per day (every 20 Rosharan hours) because they rise and set the same time every night. This is something the books are never 100% explicit on, but it's heavily implied and has been confirmed. (Technically, they orbit a *bit* faster and precess slightly so that they keep their position relative to the Sun at all times of the year.) This nearly implies a geosynchronous orbit, where a satellite ends up over the same spot on the ground every day. But it can't be that or the moons would be up all day and night. Viewed from the ground they'd just sort of wobble back and forth around a fixed point in the sky. And that's not the case. They rise in the east, set in the west, and are only up for a few hours. (TWoK 2 & 23, among others) This means they are in a retrograde orbit (they go around clockwise) and it means they're in an elliptical orbit with the low point on the nighttime side of Roshar. This is what you need to get such behavior. Here's a very simplified approximation of one such moon: There are 3 of them of course. The Arcanum Unbounded star chart of Roshar suggests they are all at slightly different orientations relative to the sun. They are also inclined orbits, which is necessary to have the rise/set in the east/west for a viewer in the southern hemisphere. But for this post we're just going to keep it simple and pretend they're on the same plane as the equator. The order and timing of the moons as observed from the Shattered Plains is (and I'm using a 20-hour clock)... Salas rises just after sunset, around 15:00. Salas is up for about 2 Rosharan hours. Salas sets and we have an hour of darkness before Nomon rises. ("the hateful hour") Nomon rises around 18:00 and is up for 3-4 hours. Nomon sets as Mishim rises, around 1:00 or 2:00, and Mishim sets at sunrise (5:00). So why don't they make sense? Let's zero-in on the first moon, Salas. The moon should JUST become visible on the horizon at sunset, so the viewer's line of site looks something like this. Now we skip ahead 2 hours. Roshar turns about 36 degrees during that time (2 / 20 hours = 10%), so I've put an X at our viewer's new location. At this time, Salas is setting behind the horizon. So their line of sight looks like this. So consider what a person at points Y (2 hours behind the Shattered Plains) and Z (Shinovar) are seeing. It's pretty clear that they can't possibly see the moon rise at sunset. In Shinovar, Salas will be high in the sky already in their afternoon. Now, to be fair, the orbital path that I've drawn for Salas is somewhat arbitrary here. But the fundamental problem can't be fixed with a different orbit. If you want to slow the moon down, so that it's simply visible around sunset in Shinovar, that means it's going to be visible longer in the Shattered Plains' night sky. Solutions? I can't help but wonder what could be done differently. If you were going to try and "fix" the books, what approach would you take? (Aside from the option of just ignoring the problem and not thinking about it too much) The simple option is to just make the orbits work for the Shattered Plains and say that they ARE indeed not visible for some of western Roshar. Maybe they are visible during the day. The problem with this is that Szeth seems to suggest they don't do that. The Shin are actually where we get a name ("hateful hour") for the time between Salas and Nomon. But that could be changed. And there are some other timings that would need to be adjusted, but not too many. Alternatively, you might be able to push all of them back in their orbits a bit so that they all show up in the night sky for everyone across the continent. This would probably result in them moving faster across the sky. And it would probably mean that eastern Roshar has a few hours of darkness between sunset and Salas while western Roshar has a few hours of darkness between Mishim and sunrise. Another option is to have them move more slowly. It wouldn't be hard to have them set to all rise at roughly the same time, if you turn the orbit the right way. It simply means they're going to be relatively high in the sky for that portion, and that means they're going to be visible for much longer. Their movement would almost be more from Roshar turning than from the moons' own movement. (i.e. more like the way our own moon moves across the sky) This means their visibility will overlap and it means we have to toss out the hateful hour. Of course, if someone sees something I'm missing, please let me know. I HAVE simplified this by keeping things on Roshar's equatorial plane, but I'm fairly confident that you get more or less the same thing if we incline the orbits a little and view the moons from a point in the southern hemisphere.
  5. 1 point
    TWG 100%: Brandon 100% (116/116), Peter 100% (116/116), Isaac 100% (75/75), Ben 100% (38/38) 17S 100%: Brandon 100% (106/106), Peter 100% (112/112), Isaac 100% (112/112), Ben 100% (101/101) Reddit 100%: Brandon 100% (135/135), Peter 100% (108/108), Isaac 100% (26/26), Ben 100% (89/89), Adam 100% (17/17), Store 100% (7/7) Twitter 56%: Brandon 100% (128/128), Peter 36% (46/128), Isaac 39% (53/135), Adam 39% (23/59) Blog 100%: Brandon 100% (215/215) Social Media Total: 89% (1616/1816) Theoryland Review: 10% (121/1183) Events and Signings Review: 0% (0/397) Reddit's done. I missed, like, one or two little things from Ben, but now I'm up to date. Twitter itself actually has a pretty robust advanced search, once you figure out how to ask it nicely. So I threw in Peter, Isaac, and Adam all into an advanced search, so those will all three begin to tick up together. (As soon as we catch up to Adam. He was a latecomer to Twitter.) I'm hoping to get Twitter finished by the end of the year. We'll see how much I get pulled away to work on the Starsight signing and other Arcanum projects. Once Twitter's done, I'll probably take a bit of a break from the review, do some other projects. I plan on investigating Facebook, seeing if there's a good way to stalk someone. Might try to reach out to customer service or something, try to frame it as a "research project." Eventually, I'll get back to Theoryland; I hear they're going to go through an upgrade soon, so I should probably do my discount double-check soon in case the interview database goes down.
  6. 1 point
    Some calculations I did a while back. Was planning to do more with the moons, but I just haven't had time and figured it was worth going ahead and posting this here as is. Given Surface gravity on Roshar is 0.7 g (source: Arcanum Unbounded) Roshar's radius is 5663 km (source: JordanCon 2018) This map of Roshar (minor WoR spioler) gives both latitude and longitude lines. The planet can be broken into 200 "squares" horizontally and 100 "squares" vertically. (source: Peter on Reddit) This map of Roshar (an azumithal equidistant projection) helps to place the equator as the latitude line passing through the southern tip of Kadrix island. One Rosharan solar day is 20 Rosharan hours. The moons have an orbital period of one solar day. Assumptions The "standard cosmere" gravity is 1 g = 9.81 m/s2 (surface gravity on Earth) The "standard cosmere" size refers to planetary radius (and circumference) and is R = 6371 km (Earth's radius) The gravitational constant, G, remains unchanged Units Units are "real" units unless defined below. 1 Rdeg (Rosharan degrees) = π/100 radians (200 Rdeg in a circle) 1 Rhour (Rosharan hour) = 3473 seconds (calculation) Calculations Size of Roshar (planet) Radius = 5663 km (88.8% of Earth radius. This is roughly in line with Khriss's estimate that Roshar's radius is 0.9 R in Arcanum Unbounded.) Diameter = 11 330 km (88.8% of Earth diameter) Circumference = 35 580 km (88.8% of Earth circumference) Surface Area = 4 * π * (radius)2 = 4.030 × 108 square km (79% of Earth surface area) Volume = 4 / 3 * π * (radius)3 = 7.608 × 1011 cubic km (70% of Earth volume) Mass Calculations Surface Gravity = 0.7 * g = 6.86 m/s2 (70% of Earth surface gravity) Mass = (surface gravity) * (radius)2 / G = 3.296×1024 kg (55% of Earth mass) Density = mass / volume = 4.333 g/cm3 (79% of Earth density) Characteristics of Roshar (continent) Northernmost point: northern tip of Iri @ 2 Rdeg N = 3.6 deg N Including islands: northern tip of Kadrix island @ 3 Rdeg N = 5.4 deg N Southernmost point: southern tip of Frostlands @ 30 Rdeg S = 54 deg S Including islands: southern tip of Thaylenah @ 32 Rdeg S = 57.6 deg S Easternmost point: New Natanan (and Frostlands coast) @ 37 Rdeg E = 66.6 deg E Westernmost point: eastern tip of Steen @ 29 Rdeg W = 52.2 deg W Including islands: eastern tip of Aimia @ 38 Rdeg W = 68.4 deg W Furthest distance: west coast of Shinovar to tip of unclaimed NE peninsula = 10 610 km (calculation) Size Comparrisons By u/Shagomir on Reddit, based on this Mollewide (equal-area) map: Each pixel on the map is approximately 78.25 km2 Major regions: Region Area Comparison Area Roshar (Total) 414,030,000 km2 Earth 510,060,000 km2 Roshar Oceans 373,780,000 km2 Earth Oceans 361,900,000 km2 Roshar (Continent) 40,250,000 km2 Asia 43,820,000 km2 Aimia 984,000 km2 New Guinea 786,000 km2 Thaylenah 414,000 km2 Sumatra 443,000 km2 Purelake 1,160,000 km2 Caspian Sea 371,000 km2 Sea of Spears 129,000 km2 Lake Superior 82,100 km2 Size of countries: Region Area Unclaimed 8,649,000 km2 Alethkar 7,134,000 km2 Jah Keved 5,553,000 km2 Iri 2,473,000 km2 Tu Bayla 2,040,000 km2 Reshi Isles 1,582,000 km2 Shinovar 1,407,000 km2 Azir 1,343,000 km2 Herdaz 1,155,000 km2 Babatharnam 1,107,000 km2 Rira 1,056,000 km2 Aimia 984,000 km2 Tukar 702,000 km2 Emul 596,000 km2 Marat 524,000 km2 Greater Hexi 454,000 km2 Thaylenah 414,000 km2 Yezier 396,000 km2 Marabethia 394,000 km2 Yulay 393,000 km2 Tashikk 364,000 km2 Triax 336,000 km2 Liafor 319,000 km2 Desh 230,000 km2 Steen 156,000 km2 Alm 144,000 km2 Bavland 141,000 km2 Tu Fallia 127,000 km2 Shattered Plains 80,000 km2 List of comparable countries on Earth: Country Area Russia 16,377,742 km2 United States 9,147,593 km2 Australia 7,633,565 km2 India 2,973,190 km2 Argentina 2,736,690 km2 Mexico 1,943,945 km2 Iran 1,531,595 km2 South Africa 1,214,470 km2 Egypt 995,450 km2 Turkey 769,632 km2 Spain 498,980 km2 Sweden 410,335 km2 Germany 348,672 km2 United Kingdom 241,930 km2 Syria 183,630 km2 Iceland 100,250 km2 Czech Republic 77,247 km2 Moons Orbital period: T = 20 Rhours = 69 480 seconds (precession makes this weird)
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